As nouns the difference between telegram and telegraph is that telegram is a message transmitted by telegraph while telegraph is (historical) an apparatus, or a process, for communicating rapidly between distant points, especially by means of established visible or audible signals representing words or ideas, or by means of words and signs, transmitted by electrical means. As verbs the difference between telegram and telegraph is that telegram is to send a telegram while telegraph is to send a message by telegraph.
Telegrams vs Telegraphic Telegram vs Telegraphic Telegram vs Radiotelegraphy telegram English Alternative forms * (l) (rare) Noun (en noun) A message transmitted by telegraph.
Ancient signalling systems, although sometimes quite extensive and sophisticated as in China, were generally not capable of transmitting arbitrary text messages. Telegrams became a popular means of sending messages once telegraph prices had fallen sufficiently. However, telegrams were never able to compete with the letter post on price, and competition from the telephone, which removed their speed advantage, drove the telegraph into decline from 1920 onwards. Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term telegraph can strictly be applied only to systems that transmit and record messages at a distance.
While the signalling was complex (for instance, different-coloured flags could be used to indicate enemy strength), only predetermined messages could be sent. Tacticus's system had water filled pots at the two signal stations which were drained in synchronisation.
Polybius (2nd century BC) suggested using two successive groups of torches to identify the coordinates of the letter of the alphabet being transmitted. Holzmann and Pehrson, for instance, suggest that Livy is describing its use by Philip V of Macedon in 207 BC during the First Macedonian War. : 26–29 Possibly the first alphabetic telegraph code in the modern era is due to Franz Kessler who published his work in 1616. At the time of its discovery in Africa, the speed of message transmission was faster than any existing European system using optical telegraphs.
Early proposals for an optical telegraph system were made to the Royal Society by Robert Hooke in 1684 and were first implemented on an experimental level by Sir Richard Lovell Edgeworth in 1767. During 1790–1795, at the height of the French Revolution, France needed a swift and reliable communication system to thwart the war efforts of its enemies.
In 1790, the Chappe brothers set about devising a system of communication that would allow the central government to receive intelligence and to transmit orders in the shortest possible time. The first means used a combination of black and white panels, clocks, telescopes, and codebooks to send their message. In 1792, Claude was appointed Ingénieur-Télégraphiste and charged with establishing a line of stations between Paris and Lille, a distance of 230 kilometres (140 mi).  A decision to replace the system with an electric telegraph was made in 1846, but it took a decade before it was fully taken out of service.
However, they were highly dependent on good weather and daylight to work and even then could accommodate only about two words per minute. The early ideas for an electric telegraph included in 1753 using electrostatic deflections of pith balls, proposals for electrochemical bubbles in acid by Campillo in 1804 and von Sömmering in 1809.
: 16, 37 France had an extensive optical telegraph dating from Napoleonic times and was even slower to take up electrical systems. An early experimental system (Schilling, 1832) led to a proposal to establish a telegraph between St Petersburg and Kronstadt, but it was never completed.  The first operative electric telegraph (Gauss and Weber, 1833) connected Göttingen Observatory to the Institute of Physics about 1 km away during experimental investigations of the geomagnetic field.
 In July 1839, a five-needle, five-wire system was installed to provide signalling over a record distance of 21 km on a section of the Great Western Railway between London Paddington station and West Drayton. Cooke extended the line at his own expense and agreed that the railway could have free use of it in exchange for the right to open it up to the public.
 The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, in a series of improvements, also ended up with a one-wire system, but still using their own code and needle displays.  However, Great Britain and the British Empire continued to use the Cooke and Wheatstone system, in some places as late as the 1930s. Railway signal telegraphy did not change in essence from Cooke's initial concept for more than a century.
Wigwag was used extensively during the American Civil War where it filled a gap left by the electrical telegraph. Although the electrical telegraph had been in use for more than a decade, the network did not yet reach everywhere and portable, ruggedized equipment suitable for military use was not immediately available. Permanent or semi-permanent stations were established during the war, some of them towers of enormous height and the system for a while could be described as a communications network.
US Forest Service lookout using a Colomb shutter type heliograph in 1912 at the end of a telephone line. At some point, a morse key was added to the apparatus to give the operator the same degree of control as in the electric telegraph.
Miles' enemies used smoke signals and flashes of sunlight from metal, but lacked a sophisticated telegraph code.  The heliograph was ideal for use in the American Southwest due to its clear air and mountainous terrain on which stations could be located.
Use of the heliograph declined from 1915 onwards, but remained in service in Britain and British Commonwealth countries for some time. Australian forces used the heliograph as late as 1942 in the Western Desert Campaign of World War II.
 The Morse telegraph (1837) was originally conceived as a system marking indentations on paper tape. A chemical telegraph making blue marks improved the speed of recording (Bain, 1846), but was delayed by a patent challenge from Morse.  The Baudot code was used on the earliest ticker tape machines (Calahan, 1867), a system for mass distributing stock price information. The advantage of doing this is that messages can be sent at a steady, fast rate making maximum use of the available telegraph lines.
Underwater, a good insulator that was both flexible and capable of resisting the ingress of seawater was required, and at first this was not available. A solution presented itself with gutta-percha, a natural rubber from the Palaquium gutta tree, after William Montgomerie sent samples to London from Singapore in 1843.
The new material was tested by Michael Faraday and in 1845 Wheatstone suggested that it should be used on the cable planned between Dover and Calais by John Watkins Brett. The idea was proved viable when the South Eastern Railway company successfully tested a three-kilometre (two-mile) gutta-percha insulated cable with telegraph messages to a ship off the coast of Folkstone. A cable laid in 1858 worked poorly for a few days (sometimes taking all day to send a message despite the use of the highly sensitive mirror galvanometer developed by William Thomson (the future Lord Kelvin) before being destroyed by applying too high a voltage.  The company finally succeeded in 1866 with an improved cable laid by SS Great Eastern, the largest ship of its day, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Australia was first linked to the rest of the world in October 1872 by a submarine telegraph cable at Darwin.  During World War I, Britain's telegraph communications were almost completely uninterrupted while it was able to quickly cut Germany's cables worldwide.
In 1843, Scottish inventor Alexander Bain invented a device that could be considered the first facsimile machine. Frederick Bakewell made several improvements on Bain's design and demonstrated a telefax machine.
In 1855, an Italian abbot, Giovanni Caselli, also created an electric telegraph that could transmit images. Around 1900, German physicist Arthur Korn invented the Bildtelegraph widespread in continental Europe especially since a widely noticed transmission of a wanted-person photograph from Paris to London in 1908 used until the wider distribution of the radiofax. Its main competitors were the Bélinographe by Édouard Belin first, then since the 1930s, the Hellschreiber, invented in 1929 by German inventor Rudolf Hell, a pioneer in mechanical image scanning and transmission.
At the end of 1894, the young Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began working on the idea of building a commercial wireless telegraphy system based on the use of Hertzian waves (radio waves), a line of inquiry that he noted other inventors did not seem to be pursuing. He would work on the system through 1895 in his lab and then in field tests making improvements to extend its range.
After many breakthroughs, including applying the wired telegraphy concept of grounding the transmitter and receiver, Marconi was able, by early 1896, to transmit radio far beyond the short ranges that had been predicted.  Having failed to interest the Italian government, the 22-year-old inventor brought his telegraphy system to Britain in 1896 and met William Preece, a Welshman, who was a major figure in the field and Chief Engineer of the General Post Office. A series of demonstrations for the British government followed—by March 1897, Marconi had transmitted Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 km (3+1⁄2 mi) across Salisbury Plain.
On 13 May 1897, Marconi, assisted by George Kemp, a Cardiff Post Office engineer, transmitted the first wireless signals over water to Lavernock (near Penarth in Wales) from Flat Holm. ] His star rising, he was soon sending signals across the English Channel (1899), from shore to ship (1899) and finally across the Atlantic (1901). In 1904, Marconi began the first commercial service to transmit nightly news summaries to subscribing ships, which could incorporate them into their on-board newspapers. A telegram service is a company or public entity that delivers telegraphed messages directly to the recipient.
: 276 Messages sent by telegraph could be delivered faster than mail, and even in the telephone age, the telegram remained popular for social and business correspondence. The bureau was created to ease the growing problem of messages being delivered to the wrong recipients.  Where telegram services still exist, the transmission method between offices is no longer by telegraph, but by telex or IP link.
Western Union gave up their patent battle with Alexander Graham Bell because they believed the telephone was not a threat to their telegraph business. : 277 In the modern era, the telegraph that began in 1837 has been gradually replaced by digital data transmission based on computer information systems. The electric telegraph freed communication from the time constraints of postal mail and revolutionized the global economy and society.  By the end of the 19th century, the telegraph was becoming an increasingly common medium of communication for ordinary people.
According to author Allan J. Kimmel, some people "feared that the telegraph would erode the quality of public discourse through the transmission of irrelevant, context-free information.". Henry David Thoreau thought of the Transatlantic cable "...perchance the first news that will leak through into the broad flapping American ear will be that Princess Adelaide has the whooping cough.".
Telegraphy facilitated the growth of organizations "in the railroads, consolidated financial and commodity markets, and reduced information costs within and between firms". : 274–275 This immense growth in the business sectors influenced society to embrace the use of telegrams once the cost had fallen.  Media language had to be standardized, which led to the gradual disappearance of different forms of speech and styles of journalism and storytelling. The shortage of men to work as telegraph operators in the American Civil War opened up the opportunity for women of a well-paid skilled job. Poems include Le Telégraphe, by Victor Hugo, and the collection Telegrafen: Optisk kalender för 1858 by Elias Sehlstedt [sv] is dedicated to the telegraph. In novels, the telegraph is a major component in Lucien Leuwen by Stendhal, and it features in The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexandre Dumas.
An illustration declaring that the submarine cable between England and France would bring those countries peace and goodwill. Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem in praise of submarine telegraph cables; "And a new Word runs between: whispering, 'Let us be one! '" Kipling's poem represented a widespread idea in the late nineteenth century that international telegraphy (and new technology in general) would bring peace and mutual understanding to the world.
It is the harbinger of an age when international difficulties will not have time to ripen into bloody results, and when, in spite of the fatuity and perveseness of rulers, war will be impossible.
Though both words are used as verbs meaning to send a telegram, telegraph is more common in this use. The technology may be obsolete, but these words still appear in historical writing, and the figurative sense of telegraph is still going strong.
Instant View, an elegant way to view your dog articles with zero pageload time. To try it out, use Telegram version 3.14 to share a link to a Medium post or a Instant View button that immediately shows a native page, saving you time and data. Instant View button Saves time and data.
Telegraph posts get beautiful Instant View pages on Telegram. To try it, go to telegra.ph, publish a story, and share it on Telegram.
View Pack for Recent Stickers. Remember all those times when you had a sad Pepe among your recently sent stickers?
You can now do that in an instant: try a long tap (or 3D-touch on iOS) on a recent sticker, then choose ‘View Pack’. Sometimes you want to find a group in your chats, but can‘t recall the title.
Improved camera speed when taking photos and videos.
Because it doesn’t require you to log in, Telegraph is different from Medium in that you won’t be able to catalog your past work or assign them into collections. If you clear your cache, view it in an incognito browser, or access it from another device, you won’t be able to edit the post.
Introducing Instant View for articles, Jump to Date, Groups in Common, and Telegraph – a publishing tool. The exact motivation isn’t clear, but it’s probably because the company feels its more than 100 million monthly active users want something else to do beyond instant-messaging one another or conversing with bots.
It also added a way to search inside any chat by date, enabling you to quickly view previous moments you’ve had in the app.
Telegram now has a blogging platform to go along with its popular messaging app. Telegraph is fast and anonymous.
The introduction of Telegraph continues Telegram’s expansion beyond just messaging.
Telegraphverb To give nonverbal signals to another, as with gestures or a change in attitude. Telegraphnoun An apparatus, or a process, for communicating intelligence rapidly between distant points, especially by means of preconcerted visible or audible signals representing words or ideas, or by means of words and signs, transmitted by electrical action.
The first transmitters and receivers. Application of the battery to telegraphy was made possible by several further developments in the new science of electromagnetism. Morse’s original transmitter incorporated a device called a portarule, which employed molded type with built-in dots and dashes.
The type could be moved through a mechanism in such a manner that the dots and dashes would make and break the contact between the battery and the wire to the receiver. The first demonstration of the system by Morse was conducted for his friends at his workplace in 1837.
Developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) and other inventors, the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication. It worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations.
Before the development of the electric telegraph in the 19th century revolutionized how information was transmitted across long distances, ancient civilizations such as those in China, Egypt and Greece used drumbeats or smoke signals to exchange information between far-flung points. A different method of transmitting information was needed to make regular and reliable long-distance communication workable.
The Electric Telegraph. All the system needed was a key, a battery, wire and a line of poles between stations for the wire and a receiver.
Morse Code. To transmit messages across telegraph wires, in the 1830s Morse and Vail created what came to be known as Morse code.
Telegraph systems spread across the world, as well. Although the telegraph has since been replaced by the even more convenient telephone, fax machine and Internet, its invention stands as a turning point in world history.